عنوان مقاله [English]
Smart concrete refers to structural materials that can sense and respond appropriately to changes in their environment. This is done by changing one or more parameters. The smart properties of concrete are usually achieved by modifying and upgrading the concrete mix design and matrix. It is mainly obtained by improving the composition of initional materials or adding functional materials to concrete. This concrete also has bionic (biological) characteristics. Compared to conventional concrete, properly designed smart concrete can be utilized to optimize the safety, durability and proper performance of infrastructure and reducing of the maintenance costs. The costs of use, resource consumption and environmental pollution, which are the basic parameters for construcction, will be reduced. Over the past few decades, significant efforts have been made to research smart concrete and many innovative achievements in the development and application of smart concrete are obtained. Thirteen types of smart concrete, with emphasis on their capabilities, are systematically investigated in this article, which is based on the principles, composition, construction, properties, research development and structural applications. In addition, some perspectives on the development of smart concrete are discussed. Finally, thirteen compositions of smart concrete were organized into a Table.